Periodontics is the specialisation standing between dental medicine and general medicine, meeting the theoretical and practical knowledge in both areas. A good specialist must master internal medicine, be a good clinician and also acquire the latest techniques of superficial and deep periodontal surgery and alveolar bone surgery.
Although periodontal disease has a history as long as the human kind’s, due to lack of information, the population gets to ignore the signs that portend the installation of this disease, reaching a dental office when affected teeth are already irrecoverable.
Through the periodontology services provided in our clinic we try to inform patients on the aetiology, signs, symptoms and ways to prevent periodontal disease, offering treatment solutions where the disease is already installed, in an attempt to stop its evolution and afterwards restoring the functionality of the system supporting the tooth, and subsequently of the dento-maxillary system.
What is periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease, also improperly known as periodontitis, is a disease of the dento-maxillary system, which affects the support structures of the tooth at the socket level.
The installation begins with an inflammatory process in the gum, which, if not suppressed, will reach the deep structures of the desmodontium: the tooth root surface, the surrounding bone and the desmodontium ligaments connecting the two structures.
What are the factors that trigger periodontal disease?
The aetiological factor of the periodontal disease is of an infectious nature, i.e. the harmful microorganisms that are found in the soft plaque deposits in the oral cavity. In translation, the determining factor is the poor hygiene of the individual, who does not employ a correct and daily brushing technique or does not use additional cleaning methods.
There are also supporting factors which maintain the state of periodontal disease: deposits of tartar, caries processes, root remnants, obturations (fillings) and prosthetic devices designed and manufactured incorrectly, tooth position changes, edentation (no teeth) and bad habits.
However, there also is a genetic factor predisposing to the installation of the disease.
Also, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, smoking, stress, hormonal disorders, diabetes, inappropriate diet and administration of medications (anticonvulsants, calcium channel inhibitors, and cyclosporine) are factors implicated in causing periodontal disease.
What are the symptoms of periodontal disease?
The first signs of disease appear with the installation of gingivitis. The patient feels an inflammation of the gums, accompanied by pain and bleeds when brushing, during chewing or even spontaneously. Most people ignore these signs, which are the first warning signs that should direct them in the dental office.
With the evolution of the disease untreated towards periodontitis, the following undesirable symptoms occur:
- Fetid halitosis (bad breath)
- The existence of purulent secretions from the gingival sulcus
- Gingival retraction
- Enlargement of the gum
- Abnormal tooth mobility
- Changes in the position of the teeth
- Functional disorders: speech, mastication
- Physiognomy disorders
- The occurrence of a painful sensitivity to hot and cold food contact
What are the stages of treatment?
In our clinic we put great emphasis on prevention of periodontal disease. Thus, we offer guidance in order to achieve a correct and complete sanitization at home and perform, in our dental office, periodic disposal procedures against microbial deposits of plaque and tartar – professional ultrasonic and manual scaling, followed by professional brushing.
For more advanced forms of the disease we offer the following therapeutic manoeuvres:
- Surgical manoeuvres to remove the pathologic tissue: gingival and subgingival curettage, open flap and closed flap
- Incisional and excisional surgical manoeuvers, for the enlargement of gums and for the removal of periodontal pockets
- Plasty manoeuvers to restore functional morphology of the gingival contour
- Addition therapy
- The administration of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment, at a local or general level
- Occlusal rebalancing manoeuvres